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Particles are non-inflectional small words that modify sentences. One class of particles are ones that always come in the second position in a given sentence: go, han, ba, bat. The first particle go is used for constructing yes/no questions, the other particles indicate that the preceding constituent (first position) is known or given in the discourse. The particle bat is used in questions, han is used in declarative sentences, whereas the particle ba can be used in both questions and declarative sentences. In addition we also have the particle son, which is used in questions. It immediately follows the question word in a sentence, be that the particle go or an interrogative pronoun. 'Son' expresses wonder or introduces a rhetorical question, which requires no answer.
- Boahtá 'go' Máret deike?
- (Is Máret going to come here?)
- Máret 'bat' boahtá deike?
- (Is Máret really the one who is coming here?)
- It go don vuolgge? - Vuolggán 'ba' dieđusge.
- (Aren't you going? - Well, of course, I'm going.)
- Compare with:Vuolggát go don? - Vuolggán dieđusge.
- (Are you going? - Of course, I'm going.)
- Mas 'ba' mun dan dieđášin?
- (Well, how am I supposed to know that?)
- Dat 'han' lea boares ášši.
- (Now, that is an old matter.)
- Maid 'son' Issát jurddaša?
- (I wonder what Issát is thinking about?)
- Boahtá go 'son' Máret deike?
- (I wonder if Máret will come here?)
Other particles are, for example, ge, which can be used both for positive and negative emphasis. The particle ge is used for negative emphasis in combination with the verb of negation. It can be translated here with 'even'. In positive emphasis the particle ge can be translated as 'too' and 'also'. Another particle for positive emphasis is nai. Here are some examples of positive and negative emphasis. Make note of the constituent immediately preceding the particles:
- Mun dovddan su 'ge' ustibiid.
- (I know HIS friends 'too'.)
- Mun 'nai' vulgen fárrui.
- (I went along too.)
- In dovdda su ustibiid 'ge'.
- (I don't 'even' know his FRIENDS.)
- Ii Máret leat hupman 'ge' singuin.
- (Máret hasn't 'even' SPOKEN with them.)
Some particles form independent words with the word they modify, and they must always be written as one word. Such words can be observed in dieđusge 'of course', obanassiige 'not at all', and goitge 'anyway'.
- Máret boahtá 'dieđusge' deike.
- (Of course, Máret is going to come here.)
- Son ii boađe deike 'obanassiige'.
- (She won't come here at all.)
- Son boahtá deike 'goitge'.
- (She will come here anyway.)
Other typical particles include: fal, hal, gis/ges, gal, gusto, mis, mat, hás. The first three can be used in both questions and declarative sentences. The particles gal, gusto, mis, mat are used in declarative sentences, whereas hás is used in challenges:
- Mana 'fal' gahpir haga, 'gal' de beasat galbmot.
- ('Just' go out without a hat, and you're 'certain' to get cold.)
- Máret 'fal' boahtá?
- (Máret is coming, isn't she?)
- Máret 'gal' boahtá.
- (Why of course, Máret is coming.)
- Ii 'hal' dohko goit vuolgge?
- (He isn't going there, is he?)
- Lean veaskku láhppán. Gosa dal 'gis' lean dan bidjan?
- (I've lost my purse. 'Now', where can I have put it?)
- Duo dat 'gusto' lea ge.
- ('Oh [now I see it]', there it is.)
- Mun ledjen 'mis' gámahildu ala dan luoitilan.
- ('Why', I had set it on the shoe rack.)
- Máret fárre Levdnjii, ja Gáren 'gis' fárre Detnui.
- (Máret is moving to Lakselv, and Gáren, 'on the other hand', is moving to Tana.)
- Áddjá gáddá ahte Jovnna 'mat' joatká boazodoalus.
- (Grandpa thinks that Jovnna will 'also' continue with reindeer herding.)
- Sirdde 'mat' veaháš dobbelii!
- (Move a little further away, 'please'!)
- 'Hás' it duostta njuiket.
- ('Come on', you're afraid to jump.)