Adjectives

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Adjectives tell what something or somebody is like, e.g. what he/she/it looks like: Mus lea 'rukses' biila. (I have a red car.) Son lea 'lihkolaš'. (He/She is happy.)

Different Stems

Adjectives are inflected in various ways, everything depends on how many syllables are in the final foot of the word in question. A foot is a group of syllables where the first syllable has stress: nuorra 'young' and dábálaš 'ordinary' both contain one foot, even though the words have different numbers of syllables, while bealje-heapme 'deaf' contains two feet.

Bisyllabic adjectives have two syllables in the final foot in the nominative plural. These adjectives have strong grade in the nominative singular, and weak grade in the plural, e.g. nuorra - nuorat 'young'. Not all adjectives have gradation, e.g. hávski - hávskit 'fun'.

Trisyllabic adjectives have three syllables in the last foot in the plural, e.g. suohtas - suohttasat 'pleasant', bivnnut - bivnnuhat 'favored'. The nominative singular is weak grade, and most of the other forms are strong grade, but not all adjectives with an odd number of syllables are subject to gradation.

Contracted adjectives have two syllables in the final foot in both the nominative singular and the plural. The adjective is weak grade in the nominative singular and strong or extra strong grade in the plural, e.g. njálggis - njálgát stuoris - stuorrát.

Gradation

Gradation usually occurs in the consonants between the first and second syllable of a foot, e.g. nuorra - nuorat 'young'. The strong grade, for example, occurs in the nominative singular in bisyllabic adjectives, and in the nominative plural in trisyllabic adjectives. The weak grade, on the contrary, is observed in the consonants in the nominative plural of bisyllabic adjectives, and the nominative singular of trisyllabic adjectives.

Examples of gradation with the strong grade on the left, and the weak grade on the right. Please observe that '-i-' is considered a consonant "-j-" when it follows a vowel, and it is therefore part of the consonant cluster:

  • nuorra - nuorat 'young', falli - falit 'swift', ođđasat - ođas 'new'
  • árgi - árggit 'shy', gái - gáržžit 'narrow', láiki - láikkit 'lazy'
  • headju - heajut 'poor, bad', bealjeheapme - bealjeheamit 'deaf'
  • čeahppi - čeahpit 'skilled', njoahci - njoazit 'slow', uhcci - uhcit 'little', hihtásat - hiđis 'slow'

Bisyllabic adjectives can also end in a consonant in the nominative singular, such as in the words lihkolaš 'happy', nuoramus 'youngest'. In the inflection of these words, an extra syllable is added, and the word receives two feet: ('nuo-ra)('mu-sa). Hence gradation will occur in the final foot of the word. Strong-grade forms will occur in the illative singular and essive. The examples are given with nominative singular, nominative plural and illative singular:

  • nuoramus - nuoramusat - nuoramussii 'young'
  • lihkolaš - lihkolaččat - lihkolažžii 'happy'

You can read more about gradation here

Other Consonant Alternations

Some adjectives end in consonants in the nominative singular. In North Saami, there are limitations as to which consonants can occur in word-final position, and this is where we can observe special types of consonant alternations attested in the nominative singular and the other cases. The consonants that can occur in word-final position are: "t", "s", "š", "l", "r" and "n". Here are some examples of alternations in trisyllabic adjectives and contracted adjectives:

  • t > h, e.g. bivnnut - bivnnuha 'favored', čáppat - čáppahin 'beautiful'
  • t > d, e.g. jaskat - jaskada 'quiet'
  • t > g, e.g. ártet - ártega 'strange'
  • t > b, e.g. buoret - buorebu 'better'
  • š > ž, e.g. dološ - doloža 'ancient'

Note that the letter "š" does not always alternate: imaš - ipmaša 'strange; miraculous'.

Bisyllabic adjectives that end in consonants are subject to similar alternation:

  • š > čč, for example: lihkolaš - lihkolačča 'happy'

Bisyllabic adjectives are also subject to gradation in these consonants, read more about it here.

Some trisyllabic adjectives that end in vowels in the nominative singular gain an extra consonant in the other forms:

  • _ > g, e.g. guohca - guohccaga 'rotten, rank', bahča - bahččaga 'bitter, bad-tasting'

Contracted adjectives ending in "-i" undergo the transition "i>j" between the nominative singular and the essive in the written language.

  • i > j, e.g. čeavlái - čeavlájin 'haughty, proud', muoŧŧái - muoŧŧájin 'with many aunts'.

Attributive and Predicative Forms

Adjectives appear in attribute forms when they premodify a noun: 'fiskes' viessu 'a yellow house'. The attribute form remains the same regardless of the number or case of the modified noun, with the exception of the adjective buorre 'good'. Attribute forms are given in dictionaries, possibly marked with #, e.g. ruoksat, #rukses 'red'.

When the adjective is not a premodifier of a noun, standing alone, for instance, in the predicate, it has a predicative form: Viessu lea 'fiskat'. (The house is yellow.) Viesut leat 'fiskadat'. (The houses are yellow.) Nieida lea 'nuorra'. (The girl is young.) Nieiddat leat 'nuorat'. (The girls are young.) Moai letne 'nuorat'. (The two of us are young.) The predicative form, used in subject-complement constructions and other places where there is no subsequent noun to modify, appears in the nominative singular when the subject is in the singular, and in the nominative plural when the subject is in the dual or plural. In dictionaries, you can find the consonant appearing between the second and third syllable for trisyllabic adjectives, e.g. ruoksat -d- 'red' - which is realized in ruoksadat in the nominative plural. Read more about such changes here.

'Buorre' as an Attribute

When buorre premodifies a noun, it is declined in the same way as the noun it modifies, both in number and case. "Buorre" should take the same form as the noun in a majority of the cases. Exception to this are the illative and locative singular forms. Here the premodifier "buorre" appears in the accusative/genitive form.

  • Mus lea 'buorre biila'. (I have a good car.)
  • Mun oasttán 'buori biilla'. (I'll buy a good car.)
  • 'Buori biillas' oažžu 'buori hatti'. (You can get a good price for a good car.)
  • Duđan dušše 'buori biilii'. (I'll only accept a good car.)
  • 'Buriin biillain' olle guhkás. (With a good car, you can go far.)
  • Gádden dien 'buorren biilan'. (I thought that car was a good car.)

When the word 'buorre' premodifies a noun in the plural, it will appear in the plural, as well. In the illative and comitative plural, the word "buorre" can appear in the accusative/genitive plural.

  • 'Buorit biillat' leat divrasat. (Good cars are expensive.)
  • 'Buriid biillaid' lea álki vuovdit. (It is easy to sell good cars.)
  • 'Buriin biillain' leat 'buorit goazanat'. (Good cars have good brakes.)
  • Liikon 'buriid/buriide biillaide'. (I like good cars.)
  • 'Buriiguin/buriid biillaiguin' olle guhkás. (You can go a long ways with good cars.)

Comparison

Adjectives can be compared in three degrees: 'unni - unnit - unnimus' (small - smaller - smallest).

The positive form is the basic form of an adjective: 'unni, boaris, stuoris' (little, old, big).

The comparative form of the adjective is the one used in the comparison of two people or things. The comparative ending for bisyllabic and contracted adjectives is "-t": unnit (unni) 'little' stuorit (stuoris) 'big'. Trisyllabic adjectives have several possible comparative endings: "-et, -at, -ut, -eabbo, -abbo": boarráset, boarráseabbo, boarrásut, boarrásat, boarrásabbo (boaris) 'elder'.

The superlative form is the highest degree of comparison, and it is used when comparing more than two people or things. The superlative ending for bisyllabic and contraction adjectives is "-mus": unnimus (unni) 'smallest' stuorimus (stuoris) 'biggest'. Trisyllabic adjectives have two possible endings: "-eamos" and "-amos": boarráseamos, boarrásamos (boaris) 'eldest'.

The comparative is used both as a premodifying attribute form and as a predicative form.

When the comparative forms are used as premodifying attributes, they do not undergo the inflection of the noun they modify: (unni: unnit mánná, unnimus mánát) (stuoris: stuorit mánná, stuorimus mánát).

Note that in the premodifying, attribute position only the short comparative endings are possible in trisyllabic adjectives: boaris: boarráset/boarrásat/boarrásut mánná, boarráseamos/boarrásamos mánát.

When comparative forms are used as predicatives, they are inflected for number of the noun they describe. Hence a difference is made between the singular and plural.

  • The comparative:
  • Elle lea 'unnit' go mun. Soai leaba 'unnibut' go mun. (Elle is smaller than I am. The two of them are smaller than I am.)
  • Elle lea 'stuorát' go mun. Soai leaba 'stuorábut' go mun. (Elle is bigger than I am. The two of them are bigger than I am.)
  • Elle lea 'boarráseabbo/boarrásabbo' go mun. (Elle is older than I am.)
  • Soai leaba 'boarráseappot/boarrásabbot' go mun. (The two of them are older than I am.)

  • The superlative:
  • Elle lea 'unnimus'. Soai leaba 'unnimusat'. (Elle is the smallest. The two of them are the smallest.)
  • Elle lea 'stuorimus'. Soai leaba stuorimusat'. (Elle is the biggest. The two of them are the biggest.)
  • Elle lea 'boarráseamos/boarrásamos'. (Elle is the eldest.)
  • Soai leaba 'boarrásepmosat/boarrásamosat'. (The two of them are the eldest.)

Cases

are declension forms that mark what function a noun phrase takes in a sentence. Noun phrases contain adjectives, nouns, numerals or pronouns. In North Saami, there are seven cases, and these are used to mark the final word or head of the noun phrase. In certain contexts, the noun of a complex noun phrase might be dropped, and it is here that the remaining, final modifier takes the declension of the missing noun. Thus, in noun-phrase final position, an adjective can be declined in all the cases. The declension pattern of adjectives is the same as the one used for nouns. Note that comparative-form adjectives are declined according to the number of feet they have in the comparative form.

The nominative

is the case that gives the base form of an adjective, noun, numeral or pronoun, e.g. Nieida lea 'nuorra'. (The girl is young.)

The plural has the ending "-t", and the bisyllabic adjective appears in the weak grade: Nieiddat leat 'nuorat'. (The girls are young.)

Trisyllabic adjectives are weak grade in the singular and strong grade in the plural, e.g. Náhkki lea 'linis'. (The hide is soft.) Náhkit leat 'litnásat'. (The hides are soft.)

Contracted adjectives are weak grade in the singular and strong or extra strong grade in the plural, e.g. Gussa lea 'stuoris'. (The cow is big.) Gusat leat 'stuorrát'. (The cows are big.)

Comparative-form adjectives are also declined in the plural. The comparative forms of bisyllabic adjectives and contracted adjectives are trisyllabic, with three syllables in the last foot in the nominative plural. The ending "-t" in the singular alternates with "-bu-" in the plural. nuorat - nuorabut 'younger', stuorát - stuorábut 'bigger', dábálaččat - dábálaččabut 'common'.

Bisyllabic adjectives that end in "-laš", "-vaš" and "-haš" are declined like bisyllabic nouns whose ending in the comparative is "-eabbo" or "-abbo". The short endings "-at" and "-et" in the nominative singular alternate with "-abbo"/"-eabbo" endings in the plural. Note that the ending "-eabbo" is subject to gradation, with weak grade in the plural: dábálat - dábálabbot, dábáleabbo - dábáleappot, dábálabbo - dábálabbot 'more common'.

The comparative forms of trisyllabic adjectives take bisyllabic stems, with two syllables in the final foot in the nominative plural. The short endings "-at" and "-et" of the nominative singular alternate with the "-abbo-/-eabbo-" endings used in forming the plural stem. Note that the ending "-eabbo" is subject to gradation, with weak grade in the plural. boarráset - boarráseappot, boarrásabbo - boarrásabbot. 'elder'

The superlative forms retain their original feet, with the exception of contracted adjectives, which take bisyllabic stems. Bisyllabic and contracted adjectives take superlative endings in "-mus", while trisyllabic adjectives take endings in "-eamos/-amos". Note that the ending "-eamos" is subject to gradation, with strong grade in the plural: nuoramus - nuoramusat 'youngest', dábálaččamus - dábálaččamusat 'most common', stuorámus - stuorámusat 'biggest', boarráseamos - boarrásepmosat 'eldest'.

Bisyllabic adjectives that end in "-laš", "-vaš" and "-haš" can also be declined as trisyllabic nouns with a superlative ending in "-eamos/-amos". Note that the ending "-eamos" is subject to gradation, with strong grade in the plural. dábáleamos - dábálepmosat, dábálamos - dábálamosat 'most common'.

NOMINATIVE Shaded: weak grade
stem type grade singular plural
Bisyllabic stem Positive nuorra nuorat
Comparative nuorat nuorabut
Superlative nuoramus nuoramusat
Positive dábálaš dábálaččat
Comparative dábálat, dábálet, dábáleabbo, dábálabbo, dábálaččat dábáleappot, dábálabbot, dábálaččabut
Superlative dábáleamos, dábálamos, dábálaččamus dábálepmosat, dábálamosat, dábálaččamusat
Trisyllabic stem Positive linis litnásat
Comparative litnásat, litnáset, litnásabbo, litnáseabbo litnáseappot, litnásabbot
Superlative litnáseamos, litnásamos litnásepmosat, litnásamosat
Contracted Positive stuoris stuorrát
Comparative stuorit, stuorát stuoribut, stuorábut
Superlative stuorimus stuorimusat, stuorámusat

The accusative

is the case used for indicating the object, e.g. Mun oasttán 'hálbbibu'. (I'll buy a cheaper one.) The accusative plural is indicated with "-id".

Bisyllabic adjectives are weak grade in both the singular and plural: nuora - nuoraid (nuorra) 'young'.

Trisyllabic adjectives are strong grade if they are subject to gradation. In the accusative singular they end in "-a": litnása - litnásiid (linis) 'soft', ruoksada - ruoksadiid (ruoksat) 'red'.

Contracted adjectives are strong or extra strong grade: stuorrá - stuorráid (stuoris) 'big', njálgá - njálgáid (njálggis) 'sweet'.

The comparative form of bisyllabic and contracted adjectives, which is "-t" in the nominative singular, is "-bu". nuorabu - nuorabuid (nuorat) 'younger', stuorábu - stuorábuid (stuorát) 'bigger', dábálaččabu - dábálaččabuid (dábálaččat) 'more common'. Mun oasttán 'hálbbibuid'. (I'll buy the cheaper ones.)

The comparative forms in "-abbo"/"-eabbo": Note that the ending "-eabbo" is subject to gradation: litnásabbo - litnásabbuid (litnásabbo), litnáseappo - litnáseappuid (litnáseabbo) 'softer'.

Mun vieččan 'boarráseappo'. (I'll go get the older one.) Mun vieččan 'boarráseappuid'. (I'll go get the older ones.)

The superlative forms: Mun oasttán 'hálbbimusa'. (I'll buy the cheapest one.) Mun oasttán 'hálbbimusaid'. (I'll buy the cheapest ones.)

Note that the ending "-eamos" is subject to gradation: litnásamosa - litnásamosiid (litnásamos), litnásepmosa - litnásepmosiid (litnáseamos) 'softest' dábálepmosa - dábálepmosiid (dábáleamos), dábálamosa - dábálamosiid (dábálamos) 'most common'.

In North Saami, the accusative and genitive forms of adjectives are identical.

ACCUSATIVE Shaded: weak grade
stem type grade singular plural
Bisyllabic stem Positive nuora nuoraid
Comparative nuorabu nuorabuid
Superlative nuoramusa nuoramusaid
Positive dábálačča dábálaččaid
Comparative dábáleappo, dábálabbo, dábálaččabu dábáleappuid, dábálabbuid, dábálaččabuid
Superlative dábálepmosa, dábálamosa, dábálaččamusa dábálepmosiid, dábálamosiid, dábálaččamusaid
Trisyllabic stem Positive litnása litnásiid
Comparative litnáseappo, litnásabbo litnáseappuid, litnásabbuid
Superlative litnásepmosa, litnásamosa litnásepmosiid, litnásamosiid
Contracted Positive stuorrá stuorráid
Comparative stuoribu, stuorábu stuoribuid, stuorábuid
Superlative stuorimusa, stuorámusa stuorimusaid, stuorámusaid

The genitive

case indicates the possessor: riggá (the rich one's) - riggáid (the rich ones'). The genitive is also used to indicate the preposition and postposition complement, e.g. 'Jallaid' gaskkas lei jierbmái. (There was a smart person among the fools.) The genitive plural ends in "-id".

Bisyllabic adjectives are weak grade in both the singular and plural: nuora - nuoraid (nuorra) 'young'.

Trisyllabic adjectives are strong grade if they are subject to gradation. In the singular they end in "-a": litnása - litnásiid (linis) 'soft', ruoksada - ruoksadiid (ruoksat) 'red'.

Contracted adjectives are strong or extra strong grade: stuorrá - stuorráid (stuoris) 'big', njálgá - njálgáid (njálggis) 'sweet'.

The comparative forms of bisyllabic and contracted adjectives, with "-t" in the nominative singular, take the ending "-bu". nuorabu - nuorabuid (nuorat) 'younger', stuorábu - stuorábuid (stuorát) 'bigger', dábálaččabu - dábálaččabuid (dábálaččat) 'more common'.

The comparative forms in "-abbo"/"-eabbo": Note that the ending "-eabbo" is subject to gradation: litnásabbo - litnásabbuid (litnásabbo), litnáseappo - litnáseappuid (litnáseabbo) 'softer'.

Dat lea 'boarráseappo' musihkka. (That is music for older folks.) Son lea 'boarráseappuid' gaskkas. (He/She is one of the elders.)

The superlative forms: hálbbimusa - hálbbimusaid (hálbbimus) 'the cheapest'

Note that the ending "-eamos" is subject to gradation: litnásamosa - litnásamosiid (litnásamos), litnásepmosa - litnásepmosiid (litnáseamos) 'softest' dábálepmosa - dábálepmosiid (dábáleamos), dábálamosa - dábálamosiid (dábálamos) 'most common'.

In North Saami, the accusative and genitive forms of adjectives are identical.

GENITIVE Shaded: weak grade
stem type grade singular plural
Bisyllabic stem Positive nuora nuoraid
Comparative nuorabu nuorabuid
Superlative nuoramusa nuoramusaid
Positive dábálačča dábálaččaid
Comparative dábáleappo, dábálabbo, dábálaččabu dábáleappuid, dábálabbuid, dábálaččabuid
Superlative dábálepmosa, dábálamosa, dábálaččamusa dábálepmosiid, dábálamosiid, dábálaččamusaid
Trisyllabic stem Positive litnása litnásiid
Comparative litnáseappo, litnásabbo litnáseappuid, litnásabbuid
Superlative litnásepmosa, litnásamosa litnásepmosiid, litnásamosiid
Contracted Positive stuorrá stuorráid
Comparative stuoribu, stuorábu stuoribuid, stuorábuid
Superlative stuorimusa, stuorámusa stuorimusaid, stuorámusaid

The illative

is the case that indicates the direction of movement towards or into something or somebody: Mun adden eanet vahkkoruđa 'boarrásebbui'. (I gave more weekly allowance for the older one.) Dát lea fálaldat 'riggáide'. (This is a service for the rich.) Mun attán vuoittu 'jođánepmosiidda'. (I'll give a prize to the fastest ones.)

Bisyllabic adjectives are strong grade, and the stem-final vowel may show variation when the case marker "-i" is added: árgái (árgi) 'shy', jallii (jalla) 'foolish', hedjui (headju) 'bad', dábálebbui (dábáleabbo) 'more common', stuorámussii (stuorámus) 'biggest'.

Trisyllabic adjectives are strong grade and take the ending "-ii": apmasii (amas) 'strange', viššalepmosii (viššaleamos) 'most hard-working'. Contracted adjectives are strong or extra strong grade and take the ending "-i": njálgái (njálggat) 'sweet'.

The plural form ends in "-ide": heajuide 'bad', njálgáide 'sweet', čeahpimusaide 'most skilled', viššaleappuide 'harder-working', in the bisyllabic ajdectives, and "-idda" in the trisyllabic ones: apmasiidda 'to the strange ones', viššalepmosiidda 'to the hardest-working ones', nuorabuidda 'to the younger ones'.

ILLATIVE Shaded: weak grade
stem type grade singular plural
Bisyllabic stem Positive nurrii nuoraide
Comparative nuorabui nuorabuidda
Superlative nuoramussii nuoramusaide
Positive dábálažžii dábálaččaide
Comparative dábálebbui, dábálabbui, dábálaččabui dábáleappuide, dábálabbuide, dábálaččabuidda
Superlative dábálepmosii, dábálamosii, dábálaččamussii dábálepmosiidda, dábálamosiidda, dábálaččamusaide
Trisyllabic stem Positive litnásii litnásiidda
Comparative litnásebbui, litnásabbui litnáseappuide, litnásabbuide
Superlative litnásepmosii, litnásamosii litnásepmosiidda, litnásamosiidda
Contracted Positive stuorrái stuorráide
Comparative stuoribui, stuorábui stuoribuidda, stuorábuidda
Superlative stuorimussii, stuorámussii stuorimusaide, stuorámusaide

The locative

is the case that indicates the notions on/in/at or from. The locative can also be used to tell who has something: 'Jallas' ii leat ollu jierbmi. (A fool doesn't have much sense.) Sii soitet oažžut veahki 'riggáin'. (They might get help from the rich.) 'Boarrásepmosiin' ii leat skuvla odne. (The oldest ones don't have school today.)

The locative is marked with "-s" in the singular. Bisyllabic adjectives are weak grade, and trisyllabic adjectives are strong grade: apmasis (amas) 'strange', boarráseappos (boarráseabbo) 'older'. Contracted adjectives are strong or extra strong grade: riggás (rikkis) 'rich'.

The plural takes the ending "-in": apmasiin 'strange', riggáin 'rich', nuoramusain 'youngest'.

LOCATIVE Shaded: weak grade
stem type grade singular plural
Bisyllabic stem Positive nuoras nuorain
Comparative nuorabus nuorabuin
Superlative nuoramusas nuoramusain
Positive dábálaččas dábálaččain
Comparative dábáleappos, dábálabbos, dábálaččabus dábáleappuin, dábálabbuin, dábálaččabuin
Superlative dábálepmosis, dábálamosis, dábálaččamusas dábálepmosiin, dábálamosiin, dábálaččamusain
Trisyllabic stem Positive litnásis litnásiin
Comparative litnáseappos, litnásabbos litnáseappuin, litnásabbuin
Superlative litnásepmosis, litnásamosis litnásepmosiin, litnásamosiin
Contracted Positive stuorrás stuorráin
Comparative stuoribus, stuorábus stuoribuin, stuorábuin
Superlative stuorimusas, stuorámusas stuorimusain, stuorámusain

The comitative

is the case that often marks the notion "with": Mun hupmen muhtun 'jallain'. (I talked with some fool.) Mii vuolgit dohko 'riggáiguin'. (We are going there with rich people.) Áhčči vuolgá 'boarrásepmosiiguin', ja eadni báhcá ruoktot 'nuoramusaiguin'. (Dad is leaving with the oldest ones, and mom is staying home with the youngest ones.) In the singular the ending is "-in".

Bisyllabic adjectives are weak grade in the comitative: nuorain 'with the young one', dábáleappuin 'with the more common one'.

Trisyllabic adjectives are strong grade: apmasiin (amas) 'with the strange one', viššalepmosiin (viššaleamos) 'with the hardest working'.

Contracted adjectives are strong or extra strong grade: riggáin (rikkis) 'with the rich one'.

In the plural the ending is "-iguin": apmasiiguin 'with the strange ones', jallaiguin 'with the fools', nuoramusaiguin 'with the youngest ones'.

COMITATIVE Shaded: weak grade
stem type grade singular plural
Bisyllabic stem Positive nuorain nuoraiguin
Comparative nuorabuin nuorabuiguin
Superlative nuoramusain nuoramusaiguin
Positive dábálaččain dábálaččaiguin
Comparative dábáleappuin, dábálabbuin, dábálaččabuin dábáleappuiguin, dábálabbuiguin, dábálaččabuiguin
Superlative dábálepmosiin, dábálamosiin, dábálaččamusain dábálepmosiiguin, dábálamosiiguin, dábálaččamusaiguin
Trisyllabic stem Positive litnásiin litnásiiguin
Comparative litnáseappuin, litnásabbuin litnáseappuiguin, litnásabbuiguin
Superlative litnásepmosiin, litnásamosiin litnásepmosiiguin, litnásamosiiguin
Contracted Positive stuorráin stuorráiguin
Comparative stuoribuin, stuorábuin stuoribuiguin, stuorábuiguin
Superlative stuorimusain, stuorámusain stuorimusaiguin, stuorámusaiguin

The essive

is the case indicating state and might be translated with "as, like":

Mun dovden iežan 'jallan'. (I felt myself a fool.)

Son gáttii mu 'boarráseabbon'. (He/She thought that I was older.)

Oahpaheaddji rámpui mu 'viššaleamosin'. (The teacher praised me as the hardest working.)

No distinction is made between the singular and plural.

ESSIVE Shaded: weak grade
stem type grade singular / plural
Bisyllabic stem Positive nuorran
Comparative nuorabun
Superlative nuoramussan
Positive dábálažžan
Comparative dábáleabbon, dábálabbon, dábálaččabun
Superlative dábáleamosin, dábálamosin, dábálaččamussan
Trisyllabic stem Positive linisin
Comparative litnáseabbon, litnásabbon
Superlative litnáseamosin, litnásamosin
Contracted Positive stuorisin
Comparative stuoribun, stuorábun
Superlative stuorimussan, stuorámussan